This position holds that biological factors play a role in determining gender identity
This position holds that gender roles are are created exclusively through societal and cultural influences
Innatism is the notion that the human mind is equipped with certain hereditary ideas or knowledge at the point of birth
This argument suggests gender roles have been crafted through the process of evolution,
The biological approach suggests there is no distinction between sex & gender, thus biological sex creates gendered behavior.
Different hormone levels cause differences between male and female sexes. For examples testosterone can increase the incidence of behaviors such as aggression, competitiveness, and sex drive. Gender differences have further been found in the cerebral hemispheres of the brain. These differences cause the varying skill abilities amongst men and women. These neurological differences cause women to excel in language skills, fine motor skills and emotional control; whereas men excel in, spatial skills, logical reasoning, and math.
The counter argument is not to completely refute that hormones and biology play a role in human behavior, but instead to argue the role is so minimal, that for all pragmatic purposes it can be regarded as inconsequential. Any behavioral differences among genders are classed as socially constructed; an invention of cultural programming. In refutation of existing contradictory scientific evidence, it is argued that to remove existing cultural and societal programming during academic research is very difficult, and existing efforts have unsuccessfully removed such bias. Tricker et al (1996) tested the effect of elevating testosterone and it's impact on aggression in males. In a double-blind experiment no significant difference was found in aggression between the control group and those with elevated testosterone. A meta-analysis of 76 published papers found no difference in the hippocampus size variations among different genders. Lifestyle factors and long-term daily habits impact brain size and functional connectivity more than whether you are male or female.
Biological factors play a notable role in shaping human behavior; including gender specific behaviors.
Due to the uncertain level of influence from societal molding, it is difficult to assess the level in which biology also factors within human behavior.
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